Suffixes

 

1. The suffix -ary and its kin

This group of suffixes includes -ary, -arium, and -aire, which are used in several ways as noun and as adjective suffixes.

1.1. -ary as noun suffix, denoting place. The suffix is the anglicised form of the original -arium from Latin.

The following are examples of names of places with the suffix -ary:

(1) aviary [Latin avis “bird” + -ary]; (2) bestiary; (3) granary; (4) library [Latin liber, libris “book” + -ary]; (5) sanctuary [Latin sanctus “holy” + -ary].

Oddities: There are words which look as if they have been formed with the suffix -ary –but are not.

Examples:

(1) burglary [burglar + -y, not burgle + -ary]; (2) peccary; (3) quandary [Latin quando “when” + -are, infinitive suffix]; (4) vagary.

1.2. -ary as noun suffix, denoting person or thing or group thereof. The suffix is derived not from -arium but from the Latin -arius, and is used to form nouns denoting “connected with or engaged in”.

Examples:

(1) beneficiary [benefice + -ary]; (2) constabulary; (3) dromedary [Greek dromas, dromados “running” + Latin -arius “-ary”]; (4) mercenary; (5) obituary [Latin obitus “death” + -ary].

Variant -aire: This word-ending, which appears in millionaire and billionaire, is sometimes considered as a variant of -ary (as in concessionnaire, legionnaire, and questionnaire, with double “n”) and sometimes as a variant of -er (as in commissionaire, with single “n”).

1.3. -ary as adjective suffix. The suffix is derived from Latin -arius, and is used to form adjectives denoting “pertaining to” or “connected with”, and is attached to Latin-derived words.

Examples:

(1) ancillary [Latin ancilla “maidservant” + -ary]; (2) culinary [Latin: culinarius = culina “kitchen” + -ary]; (3) exemplary; (4) mercenary; (5) monetary [Latin moneta “mint, money” + -ary].

Note: Some of such adjectives may also function as nouns, e.g. contemporary, mercenary, revolutionary, tributary, visionary.

1.4. -ary as adjective suffix, to denote order, or time, or blocks of time. Examples: (1) anniversary; (2) centenary; (3) primary; (4) secondary; (5) tertiary; (6) quaternary.

1.5. -arium as noun suffix. The suffix is derived from the original Latin -arium, denoting a place or an instrument.

Examples:

(1) aquarium [Latin aqua “water” + -arium]; (2) columbarium [Latin columba “dove, pigeon” + -arium]; (3) herbarium; (4) honorarium; (5) sanitarium, US spelling (= sanatorium, British spelling).

2. The suffix -ery (with its short form -ery) and its kin

This suffix forms nouns and adjectives.

2.1. -ery/-ry as noun suffix, to denote place or establishment. This is a Middle English noun suffix, derived from the French -erie. It is affixed to nouns or verbs to denote a place or establishment.

Examples:

(1) bakery; (2) brewery; (3) eatery; (4) hatchery; (5) nursery.

Note: The variant -eria (of Italian origin) occurs in the word pizzeria; and the variant -erie (of French origin) occurs in the words menagerie and patisserie.

2.2. -ery/-ry as noun suffix, to denote a breeding colony of animals.

Examples: (1) heronry; (2) rookery.

2.3. -ery/-ry as abstract-noun suffix. This suffix forms abstract nouns denoting activity, action, art, craft, occupation, vocation, trade, or business.

Examples:

(1) chemistry; (2 cookery; (3) husbandry; (4) midwifery; (5) jugglery. This suffix, when added to nouns, adjectives, and verbs, also forms abstract nouns denoting quality, state or condition, and behaviour.

Examples:

(1) artistry; (2 bravery; (3) demagoguery; (4) greenery; (5) thuggery.

Note: The variant -erie (of French origin) occurs in such word as camaraderie [French camarade “comrade” + -erie].

2.4. When -ery/-ry is not a suffix. There are many words containing the word-ending -ery/-ry – but their etymology indicates that their formation involves some other affix or not at all.

Examples:

(1) awry [a- + wry]; (2) cemetery; (3) equerry [misleading – the word has the ending -erry, which, with a double “r”, is not a suffix]; (4) mastery [master + -y, not mast + -ery]; (5) mystery; (6) sundry.

3. The suffix -ory and its kin

This group of suffixes includes -ory, -orium, and -oire, which are used in several ways as noun and adjective suffixes.

3.1. -ory as noun suffix, denoting place. The suffix is the anglicised form of the original -orium from Latin.

The following are examples of names of places which incorporate the suffix -ory:

(1) armory, US spelling (= armoury, British spelling); (2) conservatory; (3) dormitory; (4) observatory; (5) repository.

Variant -oire: Of French origin, this suffix appears in (1) conservatoire (= conservatory); (2) escritoire; (3) repertoire (= repertory).

3.2. -ory as noun suffix, denoting agent. Example: signatory.

3.3. -ory as adjective suffix. The suffix is derived from Latin -orius/-oria/-orium, meaning “having the function or effect of”.

Examples:

 (1) accessory [access + -ory]; (2) compulsory; (3) derogatory; (4) obligatory; (5) sensory.

Note: The adjective accessory is used also as a noun.

3.4. -orium as noun suffix, denoting place. The suffix is borrowed from Latin, denoting a place, a facility, or an instrument.

Examples:

(1) auditorium; (2) crematorium; (3) emporium; (4) sanatorium, British spelling (= sanitarium, US spelling); (5) scriptorium.

3.5. When -ory is not a suffix. There are many words which end with -ory. However, etymology shows that such words are made up of some other suffix or not at all.

Examples:

(1) advisory [advisor + -y, not advise + -ory];

(2) allegory [Greek allegoria, from allos “other” + agoria “speaking”];

(3) category [Greek kategoria “statement, assertion, accusation”; from kategoros “an accuser”; from kata “down, against” + agora “marketplace, assembly” + -y];

(4) history [Greek historia];

(5) oratory [orator + -y, not orate + -ory];

(6) territory [irregular formation, from Latin terra “land” + -i- + -tory, abstracted from other words with such ending, e.g. directory, dormitory, purgatory];

 (7) victory [Latin victor + -y, not vict + -ory].

 

 

 Have fun.

 

 

20 Comments »

  1. Reseller Hosting said

    Your blog keeps getting better and better! Your older articles are not as good as newer ones you have a lot more creativity and originality now keep it up!

    • tengkp said

      This is my first blog.
      I’m still learning the trial and error.
      Anyway, thanks for the encouragement

  2. SEO Company said

    I really enjoyed reading the articles on this website.

    • tengkp said

      There will be more

  3. WP Themes said

    Amiable post and this fill someone in on helped me alot in my college assignement. Say thank you you seeking your information.

  4. WP Themes said

    Genial brief and this post helped me alot in my college assignement. Thank you as your information.

  5. JassiMostru said

    Hi
    Very nice and intrestingss story.

  6. Irenemsv said

    Your website is like a blonde with a brain. I love it. All jokes apart, very informative aricle and equally impressive design.

    • tengkp said

      Thanks for the comment

  7. Telefon Schnurloses said

    the valuable information u provided do help our team’s investigation for my company, appreaciate that.

  8. damBemsimpamy said

    Hello. I got the message post it?

  9. ptz ip camera said

    Hi Guy, this good blogs, thanks

    • Uncle Teng said

      Thanks For your comment

  10. Venetta Lymon said

    Good info over again. Thumbs up!

  11. 2010 in review « Learning English by Uncle Teng said

    […] The busiest day of the year was November 16th with 412 views. The most popular post that day was Suffixes. […]

  12. ip camera said

    woot, thank you! I’ve finally came across a website where the owner knows what they’re talking about. You know how many results are in Google when I check.. too many! It’s so annoying having to go from page after page after page, wasting my day away with tons of owners just copying eachother’s articles… ugh. Anyway, thankyou for the information anyway, much appreciated.

    • Uncle Teng said

      Not at all. Hope you come back for more

  13. ip camera said

    First of all, great looking site you have here and great post too. I would like to keep up with your posts but having problem subscribing to your rss.

  14. madzhong skachat' said

    Can more?

RSS feed for comments on this post · TrackBack URI

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: