1. When we write an essay, a letter, an article, etc, we have to make sure the text has unity and the sentences and paragraphs are connected in ideas. We can establish links in meaning between sentences and between paragraphs by using words like the following:

a)  Pronouns – to point back to a noun or noun phrase


A Tiger Woods is one of the biggest names in the world of golf. He is recognized for his brilliant achievements and the class that he brings to his game.

Tiger Woods is the subject of this article.

The words He and his in the second sentence refer back to Tiger Woods and therefore help to connect sentence 2 to sentence 1


When we use a pronoun to refer back to a noun or noun phrase, we must make sure it agrees with the noun in person, gender and number.


Mrs Lim has agrees to take charge of the concert but she will need assistance from others. (Right)

Mrs Lim has agrees to take charge of the concert but he will need assistance from others. (Wrong)


b)            The article the together with the same noun or noun phrase used earlier or with a different noun or noun phrase which is linked to the meaning to the original words.


i)                Mrs Croft was in a queue at her bank when a man came and stood in front of her.

ii)             She told him politely that he should not jump queue but the man just glared at her.

iii)         The spirited lady then marched up to a security guard and complained to him.

iv)         The guard just went up to the obnoxious character and made him apologize to Mrs Croft.

v)             Then he directed him to stand at the back of the queue, which he promptly did.

Words that refer back to Mrs Croft is in red

Words that refer back to a man is in green

Words that refer back to security guard is in purple


c)  Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns (this, that, these and those)- to refer back to nouns, noun phrases, parts of sentences, whole sentences or paragraphs.



Linda and I hurried over to Jaya Jusco on the second day of their sale, hoping to buy their “Freeze detergent”. Unfortunately those were already sold out.

The word their refer back to Jaya Jusco

The word those refer back to Freeze detergent

Another Example:

Sam and Mary told their father that it was not his presents they wanted but his presence. They said they missed him and wanted him to spend more time with them. Mr Bala finally understood this and made sure he devoted his weekends to his family.

The word this refers back to everything said in the earlier sentence.


  1. 2.  We can also connect sentences and paragraphs by using words that point forward to what is in said later sentence. For this purpose, we use words like it, this, that, these and those.


John may not like it but he has to sell his car to pay off his debts.

The word it points forward to John’s having to sell his car to pay off his debts.


Did you hear that? Ali scored all goals in our match against United College and after that a manager of a local club who was at the game approached him about playing professionally.

The word ‘that’ points forward to the whole of the next sentence.



This and these are used to indicate closeness to the speaker, and

That and those are used to indicate distance.


A: do you like these oil paintings on this wall?

B: I don’t like these. I like that painting on the other side of the room.

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