Preposition with situations and things
From, of, & out of
a) From – refer to the sender or giver,
The place of origin,
The material used to make something.
This card is from Ellen.
These oranges are from China.
You can make these colorful mats from screw pine leaves.
b) Of – refer to the content of something,
or the substance or
materials used to make something.
The new set of encyclopedia consists of 20 volumes.
This cardigan is made of 100% wood.
c) Out of – refer solely to the substance or
material used to make something.
This lantern is made of paper.
Rick made this unusual puppet out of an old sock.
By, in & with
Refer to how something is done.
a) By – refer to ways of travelling,
receiving something, or
We travelled to Thailand by car.
I sent you the document by courier service.
Keep the dough moistened by covering it
with a damp cloth.
b) In – refer to the medium used
when saying or
Mary sang us a beautiful song in French.
That artist does portraits of famous
personalities in crayon.
c) With – refers to the object or
tool used when doing something.
The workers brought down the wall with sledgehammers
The doctor checked the patient’s breathing with a stethoscope.
In, into & out of
Refer to situations.
a) In – Refer to the situation a person
or thing is in already.
Since October 2007, that company has been in financial difficulties.
We had an office party yesterday and left the whole place in a mess.
b) Into – refers to someone’s getting involved
or caught in a situation.
The swimmer got into difficulties when he was about 100m from the shore.
Peter always got into fights with his neighbor’s son.
c) Out of – refers to a person or
thing no longer being in a certain situation.
Jenny is out of job.
The heart patient is out of danger now
At, above, below, over & under
To describe a person’s age.
a) At – refers to the exact age of a person.
Children go to school at the age of six.
Mr Lee opted for early retirement at the age of 45.
b) Above & over – refers to ages higher than a specific age level.
The bank has provided special services
for those above the age of 55.
Only those above 21 can apply for
membership to the club
c) Below & under –
refers to ages lower than a specific age level.
Children below 7 years cannot enter the
pool unless accompanied by an adult.
Those under 55 are not considered to
be senior citizens.
d) Between – refers to range of ages
The spelling competition is for children
between the ages of 5 and 7.
(Those who are 5, 6 &7 of ages)
e) Above & below
Refer to the position of someone or something in a group or list.
Jenny is the senior officer in the
She has two other officers working below her.
You can find Sam’s phone number just
above Sarah’s in my telephone book.
above, below, between, over & under
refer to numbers or quantities.
a) above, below, over & under –
refer to number in relation to scales of measurement such
as price, speed, weight, etc.
We need to bring down Jenny’s temperature. It is above 100 F
b) over – refer to number in relation to people or heights.
The computer fair attracted over 2,000 people this weekend.
John is over six feet tall.
c) between – refer to an approximate number or
amount by stating first the smaller
number and then the bigger one.
That company suffered losses of between
1 and 1.5 million dollars last year.
I think between 50 and 60 people turned up for
the opening of the new art gallery in Penang Road.
At – refer to an exact number or quantity.
By – refer to an increase or decrease in quantity,
or the difference between two quantities.
The grandfather clock was marked at $1,000 but
the shop brought it down to $800 during the sale.
The baby’s weigh increased by another pound last week.
H a p p y l e a r n i n g